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Processing technolo- of CO2-enhanced gas production, field in- field, which seems to be large enough to gies exist also for oxy-fuel carbon capture frastructure must be adapted to the varying store the total quantity, as it was indicated by [9] from flue gases, where the gas quality is quantities of stored CO2 volumes in the pre- process simulation in part 1. The gas separation facility at Dornum is part the chemically reactive CO2.

Applying a of a potential project double safety concept of a primary seal cap to separate ethane rock and a secondary seal multi-barrier from the natural gas aquitard and aquifer system in the overbur- stream from Norway den could be useful. Safeguarding the un- and to use it as a derground storage through a careful site in- feedstock for the vestigation and evaluation, design and chemical industry.

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Pusch, Clausthal University of Technology; F. Lillie, H. Mund- temperature process, henk, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology which yields a mix- E-mail: Guenter-Pusch t-online. A comparison Fig. Considering the total economy — outlet pressure: 20 bar Dornum GSP case leads to very high spe- of a CCS project, it is better to raise the pres- — max. ON Ruhr- Higher gas amounts or shorter transport dis- was estimated at 25 bar.

The de- tances are required.

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On the other side the liq- mentioned reasons, the design inlet pressure termined diameter for the line is mm uid form transport is connected with rela- from capture at the power plant is set to DN The relative high H2S- content is a tively high heating cost 3. No additional booster station is re- Buntsandstein reservoir does not contain quired.

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The design parameters are given H2S. Therefore provisions at the gas separa- Field Conditioning, Distribution below: tion plant to remove this impurity might be and Injection — diameter of pipeline: necessary. The applicable process and the The transport of a dry gas from the source to between to mm related cost have not been investigated in the the storage field is routine operation in UGS. In general the incoming natural gas is fis- — total length using existing pipeline The base data for the calculation for the two cally metered, compressed to the necessary corridors: km supply chains are given in the Table 2.

Source code: Class german-dico.txt part of termsuite-core version 3.0.10

If booster stations eous CO2 is exactly the same as handling nat- water passages: 5 crossings are needed, energy cost is also included. In ural gas at a storage site. Based on the previously plant in the Altmark. The CO2 is metered be- used value 0. The calcu- fore the main membrane injection pump. At the end of the form by changing the temperature. This is gisms of compartment interference in large, EGR phase around eight years the reser- achieved by a tube heat exchanger operated compartmentalized reservoirs. It is there- voir pressure has raised to 90 bars and the in- by a gas fired heating system.

At the inlet of fore advantageous to install a distribution jection well head pressure to 75 bar. High the distribution flow lines to the injection network which can supply CO2 to many pressure distribution networks for the CO2 wells a backpressure valve is mounted to wells at constant well head pressure and ap- injection are needed in the post-EGR injec- keep the pressure constant for the above propriate rates, depending on the injectivity tion period, as it can be seen from Figure 5.

A precaution aspect is to of the wells. A typical distribution network Existing production wells must be re-com- inject the gas into the wellhead at tempera- with some well clusters is presented in pleted for injection or production purposes. New wells can be completed with respect to the subsurface installation low. As long as the CO2 is dry there are no special the best practice rules of underground gas This plant was planned and built with a zero material requirements for the surface tools.

So any boil-off CO2 is Carbon steel could be used for such applica- qualities: gathered and re-liquefied in a cooling sys- tions. The wall thickness is determined by — Double casing in the shallow aquifer zones tem and then led back into the storage ves- the operating pressure and by the tempera- of the well sels. For safety reasons, to protect people ture at the sublimation point. Alternatively SSSV and packer. A rising CO2 content in combination case of CO2 storage in depleted gas reser- demand. Reinicke et al. Cutting a window into the salt formation casing string, may allow the plas- tic salt to expand under the overburden stress into the wellbore and seal.

The responsible, mechanic creeping phenomenon of salt is amplified at high temperatures and must be tested in the field. Cap Rock Integrity Gas tight barriers are known from the exis- tence of oil and gas reservoirs over geologic ages. The sealing formation in the overbur- den of many reservoirs consists of clay, shale, or marl formations. These rocks exert a threshold pressure against gas infiltration larger than the pressure difference between the reservoir and the overburden.

Another very effective barrier rock is rock salt, which under sufficient stress is a perfectly sealing cap rock. At elevated temperatures rock salt Fig. They can also be path- — dissolution of feld- ways for ascending CO2, if they are spar example in interconnected. The cation ratios of the secondary carbon- Detailed mineralogi- ates depend on the primary rock composi- cal analyses and the tion and mineral chemistry especially chemical composi- chlorite and feldspar and on the activities of tion of formation aqueous species in the formation waters.

The products of these alteration reactions [10]. The natural analogues, taken as samples deformation behaviour of rock salt is quite The reaction products form idiomorphic from the secondary seal, indicate that the al- variable, depending on its mineralogy, grain crystals in fractures and dissolution holes. The Rotliegend formation is covered newly formed and sedimentary quartz which initially are not completely closed by by thick Zechstein salt layers as a primary grains and ankerite Figs.

The general stratigraphy of the North Ger- man sedimentary basin consists of a succes- sion of aquifers and aquitards [16], which form a multi-barrier system as a secondary seal, hindering any eventual escape of CO2 from deep storage reservoirs into the bio- sphere.

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Intercalated aquifers could serve as secondary storage and capture CO2, leaking from below. Weakly abandoned wells, natu- ral fracture systems and transmissive faults must be considered as potential pathways through barrier formations in the overbur- den. Unlike rock salt, clay minerals or car- bonates react with CO2 and formation water. For this study, geochemical reactions of CO2 especially with clay-rich cap rocks have been investigated using analogues from wells pro- ducing natural gaseous CO2 and CO2 satu- rated water from fractured Lower Devonian shale and greywacke aquifers at Namedy and Wehr Rhenish Massif, Germany.

The altered rocks are enriched in siderite and kaolinite, compared to normal regional rocks. In rock samples from shallow depth of the Namedy well, chlorite, a ubipresent min- eral within the regional siliciclastic rocks, is present, while rock samples from greater depth are free of chlorite, indicating alter- ation by CO2 Fig.

The presence of calcite in the samples from shallow depth proofs that they have not been in contact with much Fig. The casual discharge of a part of dissolved solids at the surface can also be explained by the permeability en- hancement observed in CO2 flooding experi- ments through water saturated shale samples [21]. At progressed stages of rock alteration, the mass of precipitated secondary minerals may exceed the mass of dissolved primary minerals and a reduction of permeability or self-sealing of fractures can be expected [8].

Numerical simulations of rock alteration along a single fracture in the marl cap rocks of a CO2 reservoir indicate a limited extend of carbonate dissolution restricted to a few meters at the base of the cap rock [4]. Chlorite, calcite and siderite are constituents of the siliciclastic rocks in the overburden of the natural gas fields in North Germany.

Their reactivity has to be considered in the evaluation of the secondary seal function of Fig. It has to be assessed to- — Chemical elements, — Health and safety of humans in the storage gether with the determination of the hydrau- mobilized from the surrounding rocks in area. The The gas threshold pressure is a measure for phase to the surface.

Gas may accumulate espe- the barrier rock. This threshold drainage proven their efficiency to keep natural gas cially in poorly ventilated, closed spaces, capillary pressure of siliciclastic rocks for in place. Old and eventually weakly aban- such as underground buildings. People can inert gases can be measured and predicted doned wells have to be evaluated individu- suffocate in CO2 and natural gas alike.

CO2 mea- ally and eventually worked over. Other Generally, CO2 mixes rapidly with air in surements are rather rare. Figure 9 presents pathways that could facilitate leakage are the open atmosphere. As the density of measured data for gas reservoir and barrier existing faults. They are often sealing and CO2 is larger than that of ambient air, it can rocks. The threshold pressure for nitrogen separate reservoir compartments quite effi- accumulate in depressions at the earth injection into claystone measured by ciently.

They could be reactivated, when surface. Hildenbrand [5] is in excellent agreement CO2 injection would build-up large pres- All together, the potential environmental with the capillary bundle model correlation sure differences between the compart- hazards of CO2 and natural gas storage in de- based on average hydraulic radii.

Compared ments. If the reactivated faults affect the pleted reservoirs seem to be comparable. In this respect meable for fluids. Leakage may become mature technology. The main difference of more research is needed, which helps to in- critical, when secondary accumulations of CO2 storage is the long unlimited storage terpret the processes relevant for gas pene- fluids form close to the surface [7]. Subjects of protection which could be assessment and monitoring.

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Groundwater will be adversely The technical feasibility of geologic storage major environmental impacts are expected, affected by CO2, brine, some natural gas of CO2 in depleted gas reservoirs has been if a suitable site has been selected after a components and elements mobilized from principally confirmed in parts 1 and 2 of this thorough site exploration. However, risks the surrounding rocks. And by no means have all its secrets been deciphered yet.

Im Zuge der Erforschung dieses hochkomplexen Systems haben sich die Geowissenschaften in den letzten Jahrzehnten stark gewandelt. Ihre einzelnen Fachdisziplinen verstehen sich heute auch als Teilkomponenten einer systemischen Betrachtung. Dabei haben wir noch viel zu entdecken.

As far as we know, there is no other planet like Earth in the universe. At closer inspection our home planet reveals itself as a unique system of relationships and interactions of the major subsystems, the geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere. Their surprisingly fine-tuned interactions were capable to bring forth life, including the evolution of humans, and life in turn modifies the subsystems yet again. In researching this highly complex system, the Earth sciences have changed significantly in recent decades.

Today, its various disciplines are considered to be components of a systemic approach. At the same time topics such as climate change and shortage of resources indicate that modern geological research is not only fascinating but also indispensible for us humans, who use Earth as habitat and creative space.

carbon dioxide removal - German translation – Linguee

There is much to discover still. In the ongoing exploration of Earth — be it at its easily accessible surface or deep below, be it in the lab or from space — new, astonishing findings are constantly being uncovered. But geoscientific research does not simply focus on exciting science. It is a truly global undertaking, without which answers to the many challenges of a continuously growing world population and an increasing pressure on the natural life systems cannot be found. In this exciting and very accessible book, GFZ researchers provide fascinating insights into their work — work that serves a better understanding of System Earth and provides the basis for the best possible and comprehensive Earth system management.